From the early Peten to the Rio Bec, followed by Chenes, no other state in Mexico offers the density and span of periods of Maya civilization, than Campeche. Calakmul was once a dominant power and empire and with various alliances defeated the rulers of Tikal and Palenque. The Rio Bec and later Chenes periods, regions and architectural styles can be seen at sites such as Chicanna, Xpuhil and Edzna. False staircases, towers in sets of three and rounded / curved edges are all characteristic of this unique period and style.
For over two hundred years, pirates from the Barbary Coast attacked Campeche and vessels sailing from Veracruz bound for Europe. Among the desired possesions was the Palo de Campeche, or logwood, that was used to dye fabrics in Europe. To stave off these attacks, sea and land walls were errected in Campeche City. Today, these walls and ramparts are still seen in this enchanting, tropical, colonial UNESCO World Heritage city.